These webpages have been reconstructed from the original webpages from Penn State that went online beginning in 1995 but were deleted in 2007. They are mostly left in their original raw and unsophisticated form and may not all display well on modern browsers. Not all elments of the originals could be salvaged and reconstruction is ongoing. As always, I give general and free permission to all who wish to use the information and images without requiring them to get explicit permission, provided use is educational and not for profit. Many of the photos used are borrowed from the relevant References, although they are not indexed. Free and Fair Use permission applies to everything linked on this page except parts of the Roman Calendar, which includes a commercial enterprise to pay the costs of these webpages. Contact me at